Chapter 1: The Early Gods
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♠ Homer, Iliad 18.398-99
had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom—Eurynome, daughter of backward-flowing Oceanus. Greek Text
♠ Homer, Iliad 14.205-7
Them [Oceanus and Thetys] am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife, since now for a long time’s space they hold aloof one from the other from the marriage-bed and from love, for that wrath hath come upon their hearts. Greek Text
♠ Aischylos, Prometheus Desmotes (Prometheus Bound) 284-396
I have come to the end of a long journey in my passage to you, Prometheus, guiding by my own will, without a bridle, this swift-winged bird. For your fate, you may be sure, I feel compassion. Kinship, I think, constrains me to this; and, apart from blood ties, there is none to whom I should pay greater respect than to you. You shall know this for simple truth and that it is not in me to utter vain and empty words; come, tell me; what aid can I render you? For you shall never say that you have a friend more loyal than Oceanus. Continue Greek Text
♠ Aischylos, Prometheus Desmotes (Prometheus Bound) 330-32
Or, can it be that for all your exceeding wisdom, you do not know that chastisement is inflicted on a wagging tongue?
I envy you because you have escaped blame for having dared to share with me in my troubles. Greek Text
♠ fr 135 Kern – Fragments of the Orphic writers cited according to O. Kern. Orphicorum Fragmenta, p. 184-85. Berlin 1922.
♠ Hesiod, Theogony 397-98
So deathless Styx came first to Olympus with her children through the wit of her dear father. Greek Text
♠ Homer, Iliad201-4
For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea. Greek Text
♦ Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale 4209: Attic black-figure volute krater from Chiusi (François Krater) with Okeanos from wedding of Peleus and Thetis
Wikimedia photo showing handle zone where figure of Okeanos is located
Photo from Wikimedia of fish tail of Okeanos behind Hephaistos on donkey, with Okeanos’ name inscribed to right of handle
A. Furtwaengler and K. Reichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei: Auswahl hervorragender Vasenbilder (Serie I, 1904), details of pls. 1-2
♦ London, British Museum 1971.11-1.1: Attic black-figure dinos by Sophilos (Erskine or Sophilos Dinos) with Okeanos and Tethys from wedding of Peleus and Thetis
Beazley Archive Pottery Database
Perseus Art and Archaeology Artifact Browser
♠ Hesiod, Theogony 337-45
And Tethys bore to Ocean eddying rivers, Nilus, and Alpheus, and deep-swirling Eridanus, Strymon, and Meander, and the fair stream of Ister, and Phasis, and Rhesus, and the silver eddies of Achelous, Nessus, and Rhodius, Haliacmon, and Heptaporus, Granicus, and Aesepus, and holy Simois, and Peneus, and Hermus, and Caicus‘ fair stream, and great Sangarius, Ladon, Parthenius, Euenus, Ardescus, and divine Scamander. Greek Text
♠ Hesiod, Theogony 346-70
Also she brought forth a holy company of daughters who with the lord Apollo and the Rivers have youths in their keeping—to this charge Zeus appointed them—Peitho, and Admete, and Ianthe, and Electra, and Doris, and Prymno, and Urania divine in form, Hippo, Clymene, Rhodea, and Callirrhoe, Zeuxo and Clytie, and Idyia, and Pasithoe, Plexaura, and Galaxaura, and lovely Dione, Melobosis and Thoe and handsome Polydora, Cerceis lovely of form, and soft eyed Pluto, Perseis, Ianeira, Acaste, Xanthe, Petraea the fair, Menestho, and Europa, Metis, and Eurynome, and Telesto saffron-clad, Chryseis and Asia and charming Calypso, Eudora, and Tyche, Amphirho, and Ocyrrhoe, and Styx who is the chiefest of them all. These are the eldest daughters that sprang from Ocean and Tethys; but there are many besides. For there are three thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters, children who are glorious among goddesses. And as many other rivers are there, babbling as they flow, sons of Ocean, whom queenly Tethys bare, but their names it is hard for a mortal man to tell, but people know those by which they severally dwell. Greek Text
Akousilaos 2F1 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1, p. 49, ed. F. Jacoby, 2d ed. Leiden 1957.
♠ Homer, Iliad 21.193-95
but it may not be that one should fight with Zeus the son of Cronos. With him doth not even king Achelous vie, nor the great might of deep-flowing Ocean, from whom all rivers flow and every sea. Greek Text
♠ Archilochos 287 W – Iambi et Elegi Graeci 1, p. 97, ed. M.L. West.Oxford 1971.
♠ Pindar fr 249a SM – Pindarus 2, p. 143, ed. B. Snell and H. Maehler. Leipzig 1975.
♠ Sophokles, Trachiniai 5-24
For I, while still dwelling in the house of my father Oeneus at Pleuron, had such fear of marriage as never any woman of Aetolia had. For my suitor was a river-god, Achelous, who in three shapes was always asking me from my father—coming now as a bull in visible form, now as a serpent, sheeny and coiled, now ox-faced with human trunk, while from his thick-shaded beard wellheads of fountain-water sprayed. In the expectation that such a suitor would get me, I was always praying in my misery that I might die, before I should ever approach that marriage-bed.
But at last, to my joy, the glorious son of Zeus and Alcmena came and closed with him in combat and delivered me. The manner of their fighting I cannot clearly recount. I know it not, but if there be anyone who watched that sight without trembling, he might give an account of it. But I, as I sat there, was struck with terror. Greek Text
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Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, January 2018
Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, University of Georgia, July 2020
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