Gaia and Pontos (page 25, with art)

Chapter 1: The Early Gods

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Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 98.916: Tyrrhenian black-figure neck-amphora with Herakles in lionskin fighting Amazons

Museum of Fine Arts

Beazley Archive Pottery Database

Peisandros, Herakleia fr 1 PEG Poetae Epici Graeci 1, p. 167, ed. A. Bernabé. Leipzig 1987.

Athenaios 12.512f – Athenaei Naucratitae Dipnosophistarum xv, ed. G. Kaibel 3, p. 132, Leipzig 1890.

Greek Text

Epimenides, Theogony 3B2 – Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 1, pp. 32-33, ed. H. Diels and W. Kranz. 6th ed. Berlin 1951.

Greek Text

Olympia, treasury of Epidamnians: lost wooden statues by Theokles and son of snake (Ophis) guarding apple tree of Hesperides

Pausanias 6.19.8

The third of the treasuries, and the fourth as well, were dedicated by the Epidamnians…. It shows the heavens upheld by Atlas, and also Heracles and the apple-tree of the Hesperides, with the snake coiled round the apple-tree. These too are of cedar-wood, and are works of Theocles, son of Hegylus. The inscription on the heavens says that his son helped him to make it. The Hesperides (they were removed by the Eleans) were even in my time in the Heraeum; the treasury was made for the Epidamnians by Pyrrhus and his sons Lacrates and Hermon (Greek Text).

Pherekydes 3F16 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1, p. 65, ed. F. Jacoby. 2d ed. Leiden 1957.

Greek Text

Berlin, Antikensammlung 3261: Attic black-figure lekythos by Cactus Painter with Herakles and serpent (Ophis)

Pinterest photo

Beazley Archive Pottery Database


Sophokles, Trachiniai 1099-1100

you tamed the beast in Erymanthia, and underground the three-headed whelp of Hades, a resistless terror, offspring of the fierce Echidna; you tamed the dragon that guarded the golden fruit in the farthest places of the earth. Greek Text

Euripides, Herakles Mainomenos (Heracles Furens) 397-99

to pluck from golden leaves the apple-bearing fruit, when he had slain the tawny dragon, whose terrible coils were twined all round to guard it. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 375-77

And Eurybia, bright goddess, was joined in love to Crius and bore great Astraeus, and Pallas, and Perses who also was eminent among all men in wisdom. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 378-82

And Eos bore to Astraeus the strong-hearted winds, brightening Zephyrus, and Boreas, headlong in his course, and Notus,—a goddess mating in love with a god. And after these Erigeneia bare the star Eosphorus (Dawn-bringer), and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned. Greek Text

Homer, Iliad 23.198-212

Then forthwith Iris heard his prayer, and hied her with the message to the winds. They in the house of the fierce-blowing West Wind were feasting all together at the banquet and Iris halted from her running on the threshold of stone. Soon as their eyes beheld her, they all sprang up and called her each one to himself. But she refused to sit, and spake saying: “I may not sit, for I must go back unto the streams of Oceanus, unto the land of the Ethiopians, where they are sacrificing hecatombs to the immortals, that I too may share in the sacred feast. But Achilles prayeth the North Wind and the noisy West Wind to come, and promiseth them fair offerings, that so ye may rouse the pyre to burn whereon lieth Patroclus, for whom all the Achaeans groan aloud.” When she had thus departed, and they arose with a wondrous din, driving the clouds tumultuously before them. Greek Text

Homer, Iliad 16.149-51

Xanthus and Balius, that flew swift as the winds, horses that the Harpy Podarge conceived to the West Wind, as she grazed on the meadow beside the stream of Oceanus. Greek Text

Chest of Kypselos from temple of Hera at Olympia (known through Pausanias’ description and modern reconstructions)

Pausanias, Description of Greece 5.19.1:

In the fourth space on the chest as you go round from the left is Boreas, who has carried off Oreithyia; instead of feet he has serpents’ tails (Greek Text).

Detail with Boreas and Oreithuia, from reconstruction of chest of Kypselos by W. von Massow, “Die Kypseloslade,” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung vol. 41 (1916), pl. 1.

Simonides 534 PMG Poetae Melici Graeci, p. 277 ed. D. L. Page. Oxford 1962.

Simonides [says] that Oreithuia was from Brilessos and that she was snatched and carried away from Thrace to the Sarpedonian Rock (Transl. Aaron J. Ivey).

Akousilaos 2F30 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1, p. 55, ed. F. Jacoby, 2d ed. Leiden 1957.

Greek Text

Pherekydes of Syros 7B5 – Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 1, pp. 49-50, ed. H. Diels and W. Kranz. 6th ed. Berlin 1951.

Greek Text

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#Boreas, #Nemean+Lion, #Ophis, #Oreithuia

Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, January 2018.

Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, University of Georgia, July 2020

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