The Fall of Troy (page 649, with art)

Chapter 16, The Trojan War

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Vatican Museums, Belvedere 1059: Marble group from Golden House of Nero, Rome, of Laokoon and his two sons under attack by two snakes


Digital LIMC (no photos)

Vatican Museums

Od 4.271-89 – Homer, Odyssey

What a thing was this, too, which that mighty man wrought and endured in the carven horse, wherein all we chiefs of the Argives were sitting, bearing to the Trojans death and fate! Then thou camest thither, and it must be that thou wast bidden [275] by some god, who wished to grant glory to the Trojans, and godlike Deiphobus followed thee on thy way. Thrice didst thou go about the hollow ambush, trying it with thy touch, and thou didst name aloud the chieftains of the Danaans by their names, likening thy voice to the voices of the wives of all the Argives. [280] Now I and the son of Tydeus and goodly Odysseus sat there in the midst and heard how thou didst call, and we two were eager to rise up and come forth, or else to answer straightway from within, but Odysseus held us back and stayed us, despite our eagerness. [285] Then all the other sons of the Achaeans held their peace, but Anticlus alone was fain to speak and answer thee; but Odysseus firmly closed his mouth with strong hands, and saved all the Achaeans, and held him thus until Pallas Athena led thee away.”  Greek Text

Od 8.499-520 – Homer, Odyssey

So he spoke, and the minstrel, moved by the god, began, and let his song be heard, [500] taking up the tale where the Argives had embarked on their benched ships and were sailing away, after casting fire on their huts, while those others led by glorious Odysseus were now sitting in the place of assembly of the Trojans, hidden in the horse; for the Trojans had themselves dragged it to the citadel. [505] So there it stood, while the people talked long as they sat about it, and could form no resolve. Nay, in three ways did counsel find favour in their minds: either to cleave the hollow timber with the pitiless bronze, or to drag it to the height and cast it down the rocks, or to let it stand as a great offering to propitiate the gods, [510] even as in the end it was to be brought to pass; for it was their fate to perish when their city should enclose the great horse of wood, wherein were sitting all the best of the Argives, bearing to the Trojans death and fate. And he sang how the sons of the Achaeans [515] poured forth from the horse and, leaving their hollow ambush, sacked the city. Of the others he sang how in divers ways they wasted the lofty city, but of Odysseus, how he went like Ares to the house of Deiphobus together with godlike Menelaus. There it was, he said, that Odysseus braved the most terrible fight [520] and in the end conquered by the aid of great-hearted AthenaGreek Text

Od 11.523-32 – Homer, Odyssey

And again, when we, the best of the Argives, were about to go down into the horse which Epeus made, and the command of all was laid upon me, [525] both to open and to close the door of our stout-built ambush, then the other leaders and counsellors of the Danaans would wipe away tears from their eyes, and each man’s limbs shook beneath him, but never did my eyes see his fair face grow pale at all, nor see him [530] wiping tears from his cheeks; but he earnestly besought me to let him go forth from the horse, and kept handling his sword-hilt and his spear heavy with bronze, and was eager to work harm to the Trojans.  Greek Text

♠ ApE 5.19 – Apollodoros, Epitome

And when night fell, and all were plunged in sleep, the Greeks drew near by sea from Tenedos, and Sinon kindled the beacon on the grave of Achilles to guide them. And Helen, going round the horse, called the chiefs, imitating the voices of each of their wives. But when Anticlus would have answered, Ulysses held fast his mouth.  Greek Text

Proklos, Little Iliad Argumentum PEG – Poetae Epici Graeci 1, p. 75, ed. A. Bernabé. Leipzig 1987.

ApE 5.20 – Apollodoros, Epitome

and when they thought that their foes were asleep, they opened the horse and came forth with their arms. The first, Echion, son of Portheus, was killed by leaping from it; but the rest let themselves down by a rope, and lighted on the walls, and having opened the gates they admitted their comrades who had landed from Tenedos.  Greek Text

♠ Eu-Od  11.522 p. 1698 – Eustathios scholia to Homer, Odyssey — Eustathii Commentarii ad Homeri Odysseam 1, p. 432. Leipzig 1825.

Greek Text

♠ Iliou Persis (Ilii Excidium) Argumentum PEG  – Poetae Epici Graeci 1, p. 88, ed. A. Bernabé. Leipzig 1987.

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Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, June 2022

Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Retired Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, Univ. of Georgia, February 2023

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