Hades, Tartaros, Elysion (page 131, with art)

Chapter 3: Olympos, the Underworld, and Minor Divinities

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♠ Hesiod, Ehoiai (Catalogue of Women) fr 30 MW – Fragmenta Hesiodea, pp. 19-21ed. R. Merkelbach and M. L. West. Oxford 1967.

Plato, Gorgias 523b

but whoever has lived unjustly and impiously goes to the dungeon of requital and penance which, you know, they call Tartarus. Greek Text

Munich, Antikensammlungen 1493: Attic black-figure amphora with Sisyphos and winged figures (eidola) pouring water into pithos

flickr photo

Anastasia Painesi, “Objects of Torture in Hades. A Literary and Iconographic Study,” GAIA. Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce ancienne 17 (2014) 159 fig. 1

Beazley Archive Pottery Database

Palermo, Museo Archeologico Regionale 2141 (V996): Attic black-figure lekythos with unwinged male and female figures (eidola) carrying water to pithos, an old man (Oknos?), and a donkey

Archäologische Zeitung 1871, pl. 31.2

Beazley Archive Pottery Database

Polygnotos’ Nekuia painting at Knidian Lesche, Delphi (known through Pausanias’ description and modern reconstructions)

Pausanias, Description of Greece 10.29.1

After them is a man seated, said by the inscription to be Ocnus (Sloth). He is depicted as plaiting a cord, and by him stands a she-ass, eating up the cord as quickly as it is plaited. They say that this Ocnus was a diligent man with an extravagant wife. Everything he earned by working was quickly spent by his wife.  Greek Text

Detail with Oknos, from C. Robert’s reconstruction of Polygnotos’ Nekuia, J.G. Frazer, Pausanias’s Description of Greece, vol. V, Commentary (2nd ed. 1913), pl. opposite p. 372.

Plato, Gorgias 493b

in these uninitiate that part of the soul where the desires are, the licentious and fissured part, he named a leaky jar in his allegory, because it is so insatiate. So you see this person, Callicles, takes the opposite view to yours, showing how of all who are in Hades—meaning of course the invisible—these uninitiate will be most wretched, and will carry water into their leaky jar with a sieve which is no less leaky.  Greek Text

Plato, Republic 2.363d

But the impious and the unjust they bury in mud in the house of Hades and compel them to fetch water in a sieve.  Greek Text

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#Sisyphos

#rock

#eidola

#Oknos

Artistic sources edited by R. Ross Holloway, Elisha Benjamin Andrews Professor Emeritus, Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Brown Univ., and Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, December 2017.

Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Retired Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, Univ. of Georgia, February 2021

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