♠ Apollodoros, Epitome 5.16-19
And at break of day, when the Trojans beheld the camp of the Greeks deserted and believed that they had fled, they with great joy dragged the horse, and stationing it beside the palace of Priam deliberated what they should do.  As Cassandra said that there was an armed force in it, and she was further confirmed by Laocoon, the seer, some were for burning it, and others for throwing it down a precipice; but as most were in favour of sparing it as a votive offering sacred to a divinity, they betook them to sacrifice and feasting.  However, Apollo sent them a sign; for two serpents swam through the sea from the neighboring islands and devoured the sons of Laocoon.  And when night fell, and all were plunged in sleep, the Greeks drew near by sea from Tenedos, and Sinon kindled the beacon on the grave of Achilles to guide them. And Helen, going round the horse, called the chiefs, imitating the voices of each of their wives. But when Anticlus would have answered, Ulysses held fast his mouth. Greek Text
♠ Scholia at Lykophron, Alexandra 344 – Lykophronis Alexandra, vol. 2, p. 134-35, ed E. Scheer. Berlin 1908.
♠ Scholia at Lykophron, Alexandra 347 – Lykophronis Alexandra, vol. 2, p. 135, ed E. Scheer. Berlin 1908.
♠ Hyginus, Fabulae 135
LAOCOON: Laocoon, son of Acoetes, brother of Anchises, and priest of Apollo, against the will of Apollo had married and had children. By lot he was appointed to sacrifice to Neptune on the shore. Opportunity thus presenting itself, Apollo sent two snakes from Tenedos over the waves of the sea to kill his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus. When Laocoon tried to bring aid to them, the snakes killed him, too, in their folds. The Phrygians thought this happened because Laocoon had thrown his spear against the Trojan Horse. Latin Text
♠ Servius, scholia at Vergil, Aeneid 2.201 – Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii Carmina commentarii: Aeneis, ed G. Thilo and H. Hagen, vol. 1 pp. 253-54. Leipzig 1881.
♦ Basel, Antikenmuseum and Ludwig Collection Lu 70: Lucanian red-figure bell krater with cult image of Apollo entwined by two snakes; dismembered son of Laokoon; Antiope (wife of Laokoon) with axe raised; distressed Laokoon; god Apollo
♦ Once Ruvo, Museo Jatta (now lost): Apulian red-figure fragment with Artemis and Apollo, cult image of Apollo entwined by two snakes, legs and arm of son of Laokoon (latter in mouth of snake), tripod, and Antiope (wife of Laokoon)
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei <Rome>, Monumenti antichi 9 (1899), pl. 15
Digital LIMC (no photo)
Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, June 2022
Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Retired Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, Univ. of Georgia, February 2023
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