Primal Elements (page 4, with art)

Chapter 1: The Early Gods

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Anakreon 358 PMG Poetae Melici Graeci, p. 183, ed. D. L. Page. Oxford 1962.

Euripides, Medeia 530-31

… but to tell how Eros forced you with his ineluctable arrows to save me would expose me to ill-will. Greek Text

Euripides, Iphigeneia at Aulis 543-51

Happy are they who find the goddess come in moderate might, sharing with self-restraint in Aphrodite’s gift of marriage and enjoying calm and rest from frenzied passions, where the Love-god, golden-haired, stretches his charmed bow with twin arrows, and one is aimed at happiness, the other at life’s confusion. Greek Text

Sappho 47 LP – Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta, p. 38, ed. E. Lobel and D.L. Page. Oxford 1955.

Sappho 130 LP – Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta, p. 92, ed. E. Lobel and D.L. Page. Oxford 1955.

Athens, National Museum 15375: Attic red-figure aryballos by Douris (painter and potter), with with two Erotes, one with whip

G.M.A. Richter and M.J. Milne, Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases (1935), fig. 106

Beazley Archive Pottery Database

Berlin, once Antikensammlung F2032, now lost: Attic black-figure white-ground alabastron by Diosphos Painter with Eros with goad, Zeus and Ganymede

G. Körte, “Il ratto di Ganimede su vasi dipinti,” Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica 48 (1876), pl. A

Beazley Archive Pottery Database

Fort Worth, Kimbell Art Museum AP 1984.16: Attic red-figure lekythos by Brygos Painter with Eros with bow

Kimbell Art Museum

Beazley Archive Pottery Database (without image)

Athens, Parthenon: east metope 11 with Eros, Herakles and giant

C. Praschniker, Parthenonstudien (1928), pl. 24

C. Praschniker, Parthenonstudien (1928), fig. 128

Pindar, Nemean 8.5

It is a desirable thing, for one who has not strayed from due measure in any deed, to be able to win the better kinds of love; such loves,the shepherds of Cyprian Aphrodite’s gifts, attended the marriage-bed of Zeus and Aegina. Greek Text

Pindar, fr 122.4 SM – Pindarus 2, p. 101, ed. B. Snell and H. Maehler. Leipzig 1975.

Bakchylides 9.73 

to speak well of golden, violet-haired Cypris, the glorious mother of unbending passions for mortals. Greek Text

Aischylos, Hiketiden (Suppliants) 1043

…. and to the whispering touches of the Loves. Greek Text

Athens, Parthenon: cast of lost slab 6 from east frieze showing Aphrodite and Eros

Pl. 62a from Ira S. Mark, “The Gods on the East Frieze of the Parthenon,” Hesperia 53 (1984)

Plato, Symposium 178b

Of the most venerable are the honors of this god, and the proof of it is this: parents of Love there are none, nor are any recorded in either prose or verse. Hesiod says that Chaos came first into being—“and thereafter rose
Broad-breasted Earth, sure seat of all for aye,
And Love.” Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 123-25

From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. Greek Text

Homer, Iliad 8.368

... when Eurystheus sent [Herakles] forth to the house of Hades the Warder, to bring from out of Erebus the hound of loathed Hades. Greek text

Homer, Iliad 16.326-27

So these twain, overcome by twain brethren, went their way to Erebus, goodly comrades of Sarpedon, spearmen sons of Araisodarus. Greek Text

Homer, Odyssey 10. 528

turning their heads toward Erebus but thyself turning backward. Greek Text

Homer, Odyssey 11.37

Then there gathered from out of Erebus the spirits of those that are dead. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 514-15

But Menoetius was outrageous, and farseeing Zeus struck him with a lurid thunderbolt and sent him down to Erebus. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 669

…. mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebus beneath the earth. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 748-57

….  where Night and Day draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold of bronze: and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door. And the house never holds them both within; but always one is without the house passing over the earth, while the other stays at home and waits until the time for her journeying comes; and the one holds all-seeing light for them on earth, but the other holds in her arms Sleep the brother of Death, even evil Night, wrapped in a vaporous cloud. Greek Text

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Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, September 2017

Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, University of Georgia, June 2020

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