♠ Scholia b to Homer, Iliad 2.783 – Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem 3, pp. 148-49, ed. W. Dindorf and E. Maass. Oxford 1877.
♠ Hesiod, Theogony 886-900
Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis his wife first, and she was wisest among gods and mortal men. But when she was about to bring forth the goddess bright-eyed Athena, Zeus craftily deceived her with cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Earth and starry Heaven advised. For they advised him so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway over the eternal gods in place of Zeus; for very wise children were destined to be born of her, first the maiden bright-eyed Tritogeneia, equal to her father in strength and in wise understanding; but afterwards she was to bear a son of overbearing spirit king of gods and men. But Zeus put her into his own belly first, that the goddess might devise for him both good and evil. Greek Text
♠ Hesiod fr 343 MW – Fragmenta Hesiodea, pp. 171-72, ed. Merkelbach and M.L. West. Oxford 1967.
♠ Homeric Hymn to Apollo 3.305-9
She it was who once received from gold-throned Hera and brought up fell, cruel Typhaon to be a plague to men. Once on a time Hera bare him because she was angry with father Zeus, when the Son of Cronos bare all-glorious Athena in his head. Greek Text
♠ Scholia bT to Homer, Iliad 8.39 – Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem 3, p. 344, ed. W. Dindorf and E. Maass. Oxford 1877.
♠ Homeric Hymn 28 to Athena
Wise Zeus himself bare her from his awful head, arrayed in warlike arms of flashing gold, and awe seized all the gods as they gazed. But Athena sprang quickly from the immortal head and stood before Zeus who holds the aegis, shaking a sharp spear. Greek Text
♠ Chrysippos fragment – Stoicorum veterum fragmenta 2, pp. 256-57, ed. H. von Arnim. Stuttgart 1964.
♠ Stesichoros fr 233 PMG – Poetae Melici Graeci, p. 123, ed. D. L. Page. Oxford 1962.
♠ Scholia to Apollonios of Rhodes, Argonautica 4.1310 – Scholia in Apollonium Rhodium vetera, p. 274, ed. C. Wendel. Berlin 1935
The time when from her father’s head. Stesichoros was the first to say that Athena leaped from Zeus’ head with her weapons. (Transl. E. Bianchelli) Greek Text
♠ Ibykos 298 PMG – Poetae Melici Graeci, p. 153, ed. D. L. Page. Oxford 1962.
♠ Pindar, Olympian 7.35-38
when, by the skills of Hephaestus with the bronze-forged hatchet, Athena leapt from the top of her father’s head and cried aloud with a mighty shout. The Sky and mother Earth shuddered before her. Greek Text
♠ Pindar fr 34 – Pindarus 2, p. 10, ed. B. Snell and H. Maehler. Leipzig 1975.
♦ Tenos, Archaeological Museum: relief amphora with birth of Athena
Artistic sources edited by Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, March 2018
Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, Univ. of Georgia, July 2020
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