Primal Elements (page 6)

Chapter 1: The Early Gods

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Homer, Odyssey 24.12

Past the streams of Oceanus they went, past the rock Leucas, past the gates of the sun and the land of dreams. Greek Text

Homer, Iliad 2.5-6

And this plan seemed to his mind the best, to send to Agamemnon, son of Atreus, a baneful dream. Greek Text

Pausanias 5.17.2

The Hesperides, five in number, were made by Theocles, who like Dorycleidas was a Lacedaemonian, the son of Hegylus; he too, they say, was a student under Scyllis and Dipoenus. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 275

in the frontier land towards Night where are the clear-voiced Hesperides. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 517-18

And Atlas through hard constraint upholds the wide heaven with unwearying head and arms, standing at the borders of the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides. Greek Text

Hesiod, Theogony 333-35

And Ceto was joined in love to Phorcys and bore her youngest, the awful snake who guards the apples all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at its great bounds. Greek Text

Euripides, Hippolitos 742

To the apple-bearing shore of the Hesperides, famous singers, would I go my way. Greek Text

Euripides, HF 394-99 Herakles Mainomenos (Hercules Furens)

And he [Herakles] came to those minstrel maids, to their orchard in the west, to pluck from golden leaves the apple-bearing fruit, when he had slain the tawny dragon, whose terrible coils were twined all round to guard it. Greek Text

Pausanias 6.19.8

The third of the treasuries, and the fourth as well, were dedicated by the Epidamnians…. It shows the heavens upheld by Atlas, and also Heracles and the apple-tree of the Hesperides, with the snake coiled round the apple-tree. These too are of cedar-wood, and are works of Theocles, son of Hegylus. The inscription on the heavens says that his son helped him to make it. The Hesperides they were removed by the Eleans)were even in my time in the Heraeum; the treasury was made for the Epidamnians by Pyrrhus and his sons Lacrates and Hermon. Greek Text

Pausanias 5.17.2

The Hesperides, five in number, were made by Theocles, who like Dorycleidas was a Lacedaemonian, the son of Hegylus; he too, they say, was a student under Scyllis and DipoenusGreek Text

Pausanias 5.11.6

Two Hesperides are carrying the apples, the keeping of which, legend says, had been entrusted to them. Greek Text

AR  4.1396-98 – Apollonios of Rhodes, Argonautica

But they came to the sacred plain where Ladon, the serpent of the land, till yesterday kept watch over the golden apples in the garden of Atlas; and all around the nymphs, the Hesperides, were busied, chanting their lovely song. Greek Text

Pherekydes 3F16 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1p. 65, ed. F. Jacoby. 2d ed. Leiden 1957. 

Σ Hippolitos 742 – Scholia in Euripidem, ed. E. Schwartz, vol. 1, p. 92. Berlin 1887. = Pherekydes 3F16d – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1p. 65, ed. F. Jacoby. 2d ed. Leiden 1957. 

Pherekydes says that they are daughters of Zeus and Themis. (Transl. E. Bianchelli) Greek Text

Akousilaos 2F10 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1p. 51, ed. F. Jacoby. 2d ed. Leiden 1957.

Epimenides, Theogony 3B9 – Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 1, p. 34, ed. H. Diels and W. Kranz. 6th ed. Berlin 1951.

And Akousilaos says that the Harpuiai guard the apples. Epimenides says that they are the same as the Hesperides. (Transl. E. Bianchelli)

Tithanomachia fr 9 PEG Poetae Epici Graeci 1, p. 15, ed. A. Bernabé. Leipzig, 1987.

Mimnermos 12.8 W – Iambi et Elegi Graeci 2, p. 87, ed. M. L. West. Oxford 1972

Stesichoros 8 SLG – Recently discovered fragments of the Greek lyric poets according to D. L. Page, Supplementum Lyricis Graecis, p. 6. Oxford 1974.

AR 4 1396-1449 – Apollonios of Rhodes, Argonautica

And all around the nymphs, the Hesperides, were busied, chanting their lovely song. But at that time, stricken by Heracles, he lay fallen by the trunk of the apple-tree; only the tip of his tail was still writhing; but from his head down his dark spine he lay lifeless; and where the arrows had left in his blood the bitter gall of the Lernaean hydra, flies withered and died over the festering wounds. And close at hand the Hesperides, their white arms flung over their golden heads, lamented shrilly; and the heroes drew near suddenly; but the maidens, at their quick approach, at once became dust and earth where they stood… Greek Text

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Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, University of Georgia, June 2020

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