♠ Scholion at Pindar, Pythian 4.313a – Scholia vetera in Pindari carmina, Vol. 2, pp. 139-40, ed. A.B Drachman. Leipzig 1903.
♠ Asklepiades 12F6 – Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1, pp. 168-69, ed. F. Jacoby, 2d ed. Leiden 1957.
♠ Scholion at Apollonios of Rhodes, Argonautika 1.23
♠ Charax 103F62
♠ Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 46-48 [Allen 1912] – Homeri Opera 5, p. 227, ed. T.W. Allen. Oxford 1912.
♠ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.30.4
There are many untruths believed by the Greeks, one of which is that Orpheus was a son of the Muse Calliope, and not of the daughter of Pierus, that the beasts followed him fascinated by his songs, and that he went down alive to Hades to ask for his wife from the gods below. Greek Text
♠ ApB 1.3.2 – Apollodoros, Bibliotheke (Library)
Now Calliope bore to Oeagrus or, nominally, to Apollo, a son Linus, whom Hercules slew; and another son, Orpheus, who practised minstrelsy and by his songs moved stones and trees. Greek Text
♦ Basel, Antikenmuseum und Sammlung Ludwig BS 481: Attic red-figure hydria, Group of Polyglots, with head of Orpheus
Photo by Claire Niggli, courtesy of the Antikenmuseum, from S.B. Watson, “Muses of Lesbos or (Aeschylean) Muses of Pieria? Orpheus’ Head on a Fifth-century Hydria,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 53 (2013), 442 fig. 1
Artistic Sources edited by R. Ross Holloway, Elisha Benjamin Andrews Professor Emeritus, Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Brown Univ., and Frances Van Keuren, Prof. Emerita, Lamar Dodd School of Art, Univ. of Georgia, November 2017.
Literary sources edited by Elena Bianchelli, Retired Senior Lecturer of Classical Languages and Culture, Univ. of Georgia, February 2022
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